For #SaturdayArt today, we feature Kankana Debnath, 31, a doctoral scholar from the Centre for Indo-Pacific Studies, JNU. An aspiring climate change policy analyst, she practices art (watercolor painting, pencil sketch) as a hobby. Her current series on Traditional Attires from countries around the World piqued our interest, where she focuses on the origin, patterns, and fashion techniques of each attire along with accessory detailing and their symbolic connotation.
Artwork 12: China’s Han Dynasty Empress Attire
Daxiushan, translated as “Large Sleeve Gown”, is traditional Chinese clothing for women and was most popular during the Tang Dynasty particularly amongst the royals. Originally created for wear in the summer, the attire was in signature fashion during the Tang Dynasty.
The attire is paired with a ruqun which is high waisted that went up just below the bustline. The ruqun consists of a blouse(ru) and a wrap-around skirt (qun). The coat with large sleeves was often worn either tucked below the blouse or as a jacket. Very lightweight materials were used for the coats. Silk was most sought-after luxury fabric of the royals.
The royals used to accessorize their attires with gold ornaments and headgear called fengguan. These are heavy pieces of hair jewelry that were typically adorned by royalty which is also a symbol of the status of the royal women. Higher the status the heavier and ornamented becomes the fengguan. Only empresses and crown princesses were entitled to wear a fengguan. Hairpins were long and heavily embellished, known as the fa-zan were, a very important symbol of Chinese traditional culture. Grown women wore their hair into various shapes of top knot held together with fa-zan. These hairpins were made of zade, good, silver, agate, and other precious materials. Other ornaments adorned were necklaces and earrings are made of precious stones and noble metals.
Artwork 11: The Traditional Thai attire
This portrait depicts the traditional Thai attire during the Sukothai era of the Kingdom of Thailand. Normally the traditional Thai attire for women is called the “Chutthai phra ratcha niyom” which literally translates into ‘Thai dress of royal endorsement’. This kind of dress (chut Thai) is commonly worn on formal occasions as national costume.
This version has its origin during the Sukothai Era and are mostly worn during occasions like marriage. Queen Sirikit, wife of King Bhumibol Adulyadej was the first person to formally introduce this as the national Thai outfit – usually bright, delicate, and modest.
You will see many traditional dresses during festivals, celebrations, weddings, etc. Weaving is one of the many crafts in Thailand. Every ethnic group has its own tradition, with fabrics and patterns to distinguish ethnicity, and different colours to specify the purpose of the dress. However every ethnic group has its own tradition, with fabrics and patterns to distinguish ethnicity, and different colours to specify the purpose of the dress.
The parts that this dress is made up of are the pieces that form the dress are the pha nung (a long rectangular cloth used as a wrapped skirt), sin (a tube skirt), sabai (a long piece of silk that covers the upper body) and chong kraben. Women usually wear gold jewelry as accessories. The jewelleries are mostly heavily worn as a crown like head dress, heavy neckpiece, thick bangles and arm pieces.
Artwork 10: Sarafan – the Traditional Russian Attire
This artwork features the traditional Russian dress, Sarafan. By the early 20th century the most widespread women costumes were of two types: the South Russian “poneva“, i.e. a homespun woollen skirt. The second one was the Mid-Russian “sarafan“.
There isn’t an exact date when the traditional Russian costume was born, although it is logical to suppose that its birth coincided with the same era the country was established, around the tenth and twelfth centuries. There are records indicating that northern and southern fashions differed quite a lot in style and decoration, although the core clothes stayed pretty similar.
All Russian clothing styles existed in ‘everyday’ and ‘special occasion’ variants, differing in materials, colours and decorations used. The common element was multiple layers of fabrics. Sarafan consists of a long dress, which was often worn on top of a rubakha (a long oversized shirt worn by both men and women), and over that a large jumper dress is worn. These two parts are held by a belt that is worn under the sarafan. A headdress called the “kokoshnik” is worn which a must for a sarafan attire. This entire look was the ‘everyday’ and ‘special occasion’ outfit, except the headdress is worn during the latter.
The most common colours for sarafans were red, light or deep blue, wine and white. Sarafan dresses were often decorated with intricate embroidery and made from homespun linen or inexpensive printed cotton produced in the large textile factories of Moscow, Ivanovo and Vladimir regions. For special occasions, they could be made from brocades and silks and embroidered with gold and silver thread.
Posted 7th November 2020
Artwork 10: The Viking Warrior Woman’s Traditional Dress
This artwork features a Viking warrior woman also known as ‘sheildmaidens’. Vikings are mainly native of the present Scandinavian countries, mainly of Norway.
The origin of Viking fashion, particularly of those of warriors are subjected to debate. However, as per historical evidence the Viking warrior clothing heavily represents the nature of the livelihood and climate. They mostly sported dark colours of brown, greys and black. The clothing mainly is made up of animal hides or thick tree bark. The attire consist of an inner tunic which is topped by a skirt and an upper thick layered armour-like top. All these are held together tightly with a wide belt. Then are double layers trousers and heavy boots. The whole attire serves two purposes: protection from severe cold and acts as an amour.
The Vikings, both men and women, had very rough features and a warrior woman like this one hardly sported any ornamental accessories. The only accessories they had were weapons and belts and holdings to hold them on their body. But women who are not warriors did sport ornaments and slightly more colourful clothing. The women mostly braided their hair in a half updo. Also, there were heavy fur cloaks in use due to harsh weather but sometimes they chose not to wear them during combat as it may weigh down them as it was very inconvenient to fight.
Posted on 27th October 2020
Artwork 9: The Spanish Flamenco Dress
The flamenco dress, also known as traje de flamenca or sevillana dress, is the traditional suit for Spanish ferias and romerías. Nowadays, it is worn on the stage thanks to the flamenco performances. It is distinguished by being close-fitting attires with flounces (except for the canastero dress) made of different fabrics: pattered, plain, with laces, flowered and the traditional polka-dot pattern. They are totally fit to each woman’s body, which highlights their curves and figure.
The origin of this dress dates back to the 19th century livestock fairs where the privileged women wore dresses resembling it. However the trend was copied from the Andalusian peasant women, accompanying their husbands to the livestock fairs dressed in the frilly coats they wore during their daily chores. These robes ended up attracting the attention of bourgeois ladies and they began to perfect the suit with more exclusive and delicate elements.
According to experts and fashion designers this is the only traditional costume that has managed to combine tradition and modernity. It is a suit that thousands of women dress in each year, adapting it to new trends, without losing their gypsy personality.
There are many changing elements in this suit, whose carrier can customize according to their preference. We can talk about different types of neckline front and back, different types of flight in the skirt, or a wide variety of sleeves. In fact, in recent years we have been able to see different dress lengths. To all this we must add accessories play an important role in flamenco dress. Hair accessories such as combs and flowers, shawls, and even fringes and laces are crucial for the dress.
Each century has added their contemporary style into the flamenco design till date. However, traditional flamenco dress has become an entire piece of adoration. This is mainly the great reception it has had at a social level, along with his great role in flamenco world, and its changing and lively nature. That allows flamenco dress to be in contact with current trends, without losing sight of his origins.
Posted on 24th October 2020
Artwork 8: Princess of Motunui, Moana, in Polynesian attire of the Pacific region
This is a portrait of the beloved Princess of Motunui, Moana in a typical Polynesian dress of the Pacific region.
Prior to the arrival of missionaries in the Pacific Islands, dress was an important expression of social status, political standing and religious belief. The attire has feathers twined onto heavy backing, providing for rich cloaks and helmets for members of the noble classes.
Clothing was made from bark cloth called tapa, or kapa, which was then decorated with motifs that varied from one culture to the next. The upper portion of the body has a top made out of the same material so was the lower skirt, called the pa’u. The pa’u was worn from below the bust till beneath the knees. The clothing had geometric designs.
In Western Polynesia, fine mats (mostly in Tonga and Samoa) were made of pandanus leaves and were used to cover the lower body. Fine mats symbolized the interweaving of lineages and are still ritually significant. Occasionally, cape called a kikepa might be worn.
The jwellery is made of sea shells mostly. This attire was replaced by modern western clothes after the missionaries arrived during the late 1700- early 1800s.
This portrait has been pencil sketched keeping it simple and monochromatic to reflect the simplicity of the character.
Posted on: 4th October 2020
Artwork 7: The Japanese Kimono
The Japanese kimono is one of the world’s instantly recognizable traditional garments. It’s a flat, T-shaped garment with square sleeves and a rectangular body. The word kimono literally means “clothing”, and up until the mid 19th century it was the form of dress worn by everyone in Japan. That began to change slowly with the import of suits, dresses and other western fashions during the Meiji Era.
There are different types of kimono for different occasions and seasons, including those worn by men. Other than those worn daily by some older people or performers of traditional arts, kimonos are a much less common sight these days but are still widely worn on special occasions such as weddings and graduation ceremonies. The attire consists of the tabi (white cotton socks), the undergarments which are a top, and a wraparound skirt.
Then the nagajuban, an under-kimono which is tied with a datemaki belt and finally the kimono, with the left side over the right (right over left is only used when dressing a corpse for burial) and tied with the obi. About an inch of the haneri (collar) of the nagajuban shows inside the collar of the kimono. The loose design of the collar is to give a glimpse of the neck, considered the most sensual part of the kimono-wearing lady.
When outside, zori sandals are usually worn. Hairstyles and ornamentation are mostly concentrated on the head as a true Japanese tradition. Known as Kanzashi, it refers to a wide variety of accessories, including long, rigid hairpins, barrettes, fabric flowers and fabric hair ties. The kimono can be made from fabrics both in silk and cotton with various patterns printed on it. Just like the Korean Hanbok Japanese Kimono underwent massive metamorphosis since the later Heian period.
Posted on 12th September 2020
Artwork 6: Lady in a Traditional Maasai Attire – the Shuka
The Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting northern, central and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known local populations internationally due to their distinctive customs and dress. The Maasai are famous and easily recognizable thanks to their traditional robe, the Shuka. It is a bright-colored cloth, predominantly red, wrapped around their lean and slender frames; red symbolizes Maasai culture and it is the colour, believed by these people, that can scare off lions even from a great distance. Maasai jewellery, created with beads and metal wire, is just as famous. Women feature an explosion of colour and jewellery: they wear tons of bracelets and big flat bead-decorated collars in various patterns and colours, that represent the clan they belong to and their social status.
However, they have not always dressed this way, in the past their customs were different. In the past, Maasai clothes were obtained from animal hide, that were dyed using vegetable pigments, while jewellery was made of seeds and stones easily found in the surrounding environment. But when the first colonizers arrived, the Maasai started replacing calf or sheep hide with wool or cotton; it is thought that fabrics with checkered or striped patterns were inspired by the blankets English and Scottish soldiers used.
A Maasai clothing style and its colours vary depending on age and social position. The Maasai also have a long tradition of designing and making the ornaments and jewellery they wear daily. Before coming into contact with Europeans, the materials used were derived from local raw materials, like white beads created with clay or shells, ivory or bone, blue and black beads were made of iron, coal, seeds or horn and red decorations were a product of seeds, woods, pumpkins, copper or brass. After the arrival of the colonizers, all of these natural materials were replaced with glass beads, brought there from Europe, more colourful and with a smoother and brighter appearance; these new materials made it possible for more elaborated decorations to be created. In the past, warriors used to wear ivory bands on their upper arms; for the elephants’ sake, they now use simple wooden bracelets. Jewellery plays an important role in the courting rituals and both men and women spend a lot of time taking care of their looks.
Up until not too long ago, the Maasai used to wear sandals made from bovine hide, but today these materials have left room for old pneumatic tyres and plastic strips.
The different colours of Maasai garments and jewellery are important because they reflect several aspects of their culture:
Blue is the color of the sky providing water in the form of rain, which is fundamental for the cattle.
White is the purity of milk, a staple food and source of energy.
Red is the most important colour to the Maasai, it represents blood and a sort of protection against wild animals, it also stands for courage, strength, and the unity within the Masai nation.
Green means the land providing food and nourishment, in the form of plants and vegetables, for the cattle.
Yellow represents the sun, making life possible.
And, orange means hospitality, friendship and generosity.
Posted: 5th September 2020
Artwork 5: Lady in a traditional Mongolian tribal attire
The Buryat attire – It is a traditional Mongolian tribal attire which reflects a greater Central Asian and Siberian tradition of ethnic costume during the ancient and medieval days. Usually Mongolian dress consists of a long robe, known as a deel, which is worn over trousers. The Buryat word for this robe is digil, which is the ancient Mongolian word for this item of clothing. The digil is perfectly adapted to the Siberian and Mongolian climates, which have below freezing temperatures except during the summer. It is also well adapted for riding horses, which is the reason why it was traditionally worn with trousers by both sexes.
This portrait features a woman wearing the summer costume. Women wear a vest over their digil, which is an ankle length silk robes fastened with a belt on the waist. Mongolian clothing and personal adornments are rather complicated and colorful. They vary in forms and materials according to different regions, ages, status of marriage, and distinguish between splendid attire and common costume. In general, Mongolian dresses and personal adornments mainly include: ornaments, robes, belts and boots.
Mongolians are fond of bright colors. The robes are often bright coloured and have a silky sheen and are trimmed with a bright colour of contrasting shades and colourful edging. Women of high class, as seen in the portrait, wear an elaborate headdress which resembles a hat and sculpt the hair in braid-like designs with hardened mutton fat and tie their hair with jewelry pieces made of gold, silver, turquoise and coral. A family’s wealth was often measured by precious stones and metals in a woman’s hair. The shoes were mostly boots in adaptation with the freezing temperatures of the region.
Artwork 4: Portrait of a noble Egyptian woman wearing Kalashiris
This portrait depicts the fashion attire of a noble Egyptian woman during the New Kingdom era (16th to 11th century B.C). The dress here is popularly known as Kalashiris. Women’s fashion from this period was more elaborate than in any of the previous era.
Kalashiris are sheer gowns of light linen which were in favor among the upper-class women, often ornamented with a sash or cape, belted at the waist, and accented by a headpiece, necklace, and earrings.
Men and women of Egypt often shaved their heads to prevent lice and to cut down on the time it would take to maintain a full head of hair. Wigs were used by both sexes to protect the scalp and for ceremonial purposes. The wigs of the New Kingdom are the most ornate, especially for women, and show pleated, fringed, and layered hair styles with a length to the shoulders or below as shown in the portrait.
Perfume and jewelry were appreciated and worn by both men and women, as were cosmetics. Egyptians of both sexes used kohl under their eyes to decrease sun glare. Kyphi, the most popular Egyptian perfume, was regarded so highly it was burned as incense in the temples as well. The most popular form of jewelry among the upper classes was gold-based.
Posted on 17th August 2020
Artwork 3: Portrait of a Santhal woman
Marking International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples, here is artwork 3 in the series – Portrait of a Santhal woman. The painting illustrates the lifestyle and culture of the Santhal tribe in India.
The Santhal tribes are the oldest tribes in India whose origin lies in the Pre Aryan times. The Santhal tribes are found in few regions of eastern India spreading along the states of West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Jharkhand. Santhals belong to the Austro Asiatic family and they speak Santhali and Mundali language. The ethnic tribes are unique as they are gradually reducing in population. They have their distinct culture and lifestyle which they strictly maintain and they are one of the largest and ancient tribes belonging to India.
The santhals have their own clothings and distinctive draping styles. Women nowadays wear saree, petticoat and blouse and other modern clothes available. But in the past they used to wear a two piece cloth called palhand (on bottom) and panchi (top). It was being used without petticoat and blouse. Though there was difference in the length of the materials according to the requirements. The palhand was 3ft in width to cover the knee and length of 5ft. The panchi was of 4ft long and 2 ½ ft wide.The palhand was wrapped on the waist tightly and folded from one side of the waist to another in the front with the excess length. The panchhi was tucked on the waist inside the bottom wear in the front then moved around back and put on the left shoulder. The extra fabric was again pulled to the front and tucked on the left side waist. The attire was completed with ornaments. They have different ornaments for each body parts. Hasa Mala for neck, Itil Paini for ankle, Melhed Sakam for hand, Pan Kanta for hair bun, Shikha for above the ear on the hair, Pagra for ear, Phuli for nose, Puisa Mala for neck, Baju for arm, Bala Sakam for hand, Mudam for ring, Danda Jhinjhri for waist, Khadu anklet with solid structure) & Paini (anklet without ghungroos) and pajap (anklet with ghungroos on it).
Artwork 1: The Korean Hanbok
The portrait depicts a noble Korean woman wearing the Hanbok – the traditional clothing worn by women of the Korean peninsula – tracing its origin back to the reign of Three Kingdoms (57-668 BC) when Baekji, Goreyo and Silla ruled the peninsula.
The word “hanbok” itself actually means “Korean clothing”. It consists of 2 main pieces. On the upper body, both men and women wear an upper garment called “jeogori”. Women’s jeogori is fastened by a string called “goreum”. For the bottom, women wear a long skirt called “chima” and men wear baggy pants called “baji”. The outfit is complemented by silk shoes called “kkotsin”.
During the reign of all the above three kingdoms the attire underwent several modifications adjusting to the taste of the contemporary fashion trends and tastes. The hanbok was worn extensively by women of all status with the difference in materials used. Noble women wore hanboks made of fine silk and those of lower status wore cotton ones.
Present day Korean women wear hanboks during traditional occasions only. Korean film ‘ The Royal Tailor’ (2014) depicts the change in the hanbok style during the Joseon dynasty (1392-1897).
Artwork 2: The Native American Pow Wow Attire
This style of dress has many different looks. Many of the Eastern & Southeastern tribes wear long full cotton dresses, or skirts worn with cape-like blouses. This portrait features a form of applique on the shawl called “ribbon-work”. This term refers to wide bands of applique that were originally created by using brightly-colored wide silk ribbons, layered on top of each other, with designs cut out of the topmost layers. Many of the Plains and Plateau tribes wear T-dresses, an “Indian” version of a one-piece A-line dress with large open sleeves, which may have intricate designs sewn or beaded onto them. Southwestern tribes such as the Navaho are often distinguished by an abundance of turquoise and silver jewellery.
Here’s what Kankana has to say about her love for art:
“It’s a kind of soul food for me. I have been painting since I was six and received training for it till a decade before college happened and my artwork took a backseat. I resumed my passion by starting to paint again in the past year and have been continuing ever since. I try creating and re-creating art from roughly all genres. At present, I took upon working on creating artwork on traditional attires of different countries.”
Follow Kankana’s work on this series and more, here: https://www.instagram.com/iam.kankana/
First Posted on: 8th August 2020